Course AM 101: Instrumentation and Microbial Techniques
Unit I: Microscopy & Staining techniques: Basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, dark field, phase contrast, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry; Specimen preparation and basic principles of Simple, Gram, Capsule, Endospore, Flagella, Acid fast, Flurochrome and Nuclear/Geimsa’s staining.
Unit II: Basic principles and methods of sterilization: control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF.
Unit III: Basic principles and methods of media preparation: types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; pH and buffers; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes.
Unit IV: Basic principles and applications of spectrophotometry & Chromatography : Beer-Lambert law; interaction of radiation with matter, absorption of radiation, emission of radiation; UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography); GLC, HPLC and FPLC.
Unit V: Miscellaneous techniques : Principles and applications of Electrophoresis for protein and DNA; Iso-electric focusing and 2D gel electrophoresis; Autoradiography, X-Ray diffraction; Centrifugation; Ultracentifugation; Dialysis, Ultrafiltration; Lyophilization and Speed vac.
Course AM 102: Microbial Diversity- Prokaryotes and Viruses
Unit I: Discovery of microbial world; History, Scope and relevance of Microbiology; Current thoughts on microbial evolution including the origin of life; Introduction to microbial biodiversity – distribution, abundance, ecological niche of bacteria and archae.
Unit II: Current status of microbes in the living world, Haeckel’s three kingdom concept, Whittaker’s five kingdom concept, three domain concept of Carl Woese, eight kingdom system of classification of Cavalier Smith; Modern trends in the classification of microbial world including 16S rRNA sequencing, Numerical and molecular taxonomy; Classification and salient features of bacteria according to the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative bacteriology. Morphology and ultra structure of bacterial cell.
Unit III: General characteristics of Archae; cell wall of Archae, classification of Archae; General characteristics of thermophiles, psychrophiles, osmophiles, methanogens, methylotrophs, acidophiles, alkalophiles, halophiles and methanogens. Applications and commercial aspects of extremophiles. Adaptations and role of archeabacteria in the evolution of microbial world. General characters of Cyanobacteria, their classification, ultrastructure and economic importance.
Unit VI: History of discovery of viruses; General characters, nomenclature, classification, morphology and ultra-structure of viruses; Capsid and their arrangement; Cultivation of viruses using embryonated eggs, experimental animals and cell cultures (Cell-lines, cell strains and transgenic systems). Purification of viruses by adsorption, precipitation, enzymes, serological methods (haeme agglutination and ELISA). Assay of viruses (physical and chemical methods).
Unit V: Bacteriophages: Structure and life cycle patterns of T-even phages; one step growth curve; Bacteriophage typing; Structure of Cyanophages, Mycophages; General characters and structure of viroids and prions, their structure and major diseases caused by them, controversies about their nature.
Course AM 103: Microbial Diversity - Eukaryotes
Unit I: General characteristics of eukaryotic microbes; Ultrastructure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell (membrane structure and functions, cytoskeleton, intracellular compartments--- nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast and their genetic organization); Structure and organization of chromatin; cell cycle; meiosis and mitosis; Classification of eukaryotic microbes; Evolutionary relationship of each group based on modern systems of classification.
Unit II: Current status of fungi; their classification with reference to Ainsworth; General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Myxomycota, Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.
Unit III: Heterothallism; sex hormones in fungi; physiological specialization and phylogeny of fungi. Parasexual life cycle; Economic importance of fungi. Lichen and their symbiotic relationship. Economic importance of lichens.
Unit IV: General characteristics of algae; Classification of algae; Somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Rhodophyceae and Dinophyceae. Algal nutrition, ecology and biotechnology; Economic importance of algae.
Unit V: General characteristics of Protozoans; and Nematodes;Difference between protozoans and nematodes; Structure and reproduction of microbiologically important genera of protozoans (Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium) and Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator; Cestodes: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus granulosus andTrematodes: Paragonimus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma; Difference between Protozoans and Nematods .
Course AM 104: Biostatistics, Computer Application and Bioinformatics
Unit I: Presentation of data; Frequency distributions; Graphical representation of data by histogram, polygon, frequency curves and pie diagram. Measures of central tendency: Mean, median and mode; Measures of dispersion : Mean deviation, standard deviation, variance, Standard error, coefficient of variation; Correlation and regression : properties, nature, coefficient of correlation, rank correlation, linear regression and regression equations and multiple linear regression, significance of correlation and regression.
Unit II: Probability: Basic concepts related to probability theory, classical probability. Probability Distributions: Introduction and simple properties of Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions and their applications in biology. Sampling : Concept of sampling and sampling techniques.
Unit III: Testing of hypotheses: Some basic concepts, Errors in hypothesis testing; critical region;
Students t-test for the significance of population mean and the difference between two population
means; Paired t-test; Chi square test for population variance, goodness of fit and for the
independence of two attributes in a contingency table; F-test for the equality of two population
variance; Analysis of variance- One-way and two-way analysis of variance.
Unit IV: Introduction to Computers : Definition, Components of computer, Classification of Computers, Generation of Computers; Number system; Introduction to Software; Translators (Compiler & Interpreter); Basics for operating systems (MS-DOS, Windows, Unix and Linux); Introduction to MS Office (MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-Power Point); Introduction to Networking, Internet (E-Mail, File Transfer Protocol, Usenet, Telnet).
Unit V: Introduction to Bioinformatics: Definition and scope; Search engines: tools for web search; Introduction to biological databases (NCBI, EBI, DDBJ, GenBank, PDB, NDB and MMDB), Introduction to BLAST and FASTA; Brief idea about important softwares for microbiological studies.