Course AM 201: Microbial Physiology & Biochemistry
Unit I: Nutritional requirements of major groups of microbes, nutritional uptake; transport across the membranes and cell wall (diffusion, passive diffusion, active transport, group translocation and iron uptake); Physiology of growth and kinetics, Growth curve, measurement of growth (biomass, turbidity, dry weight, protein content); environmental factors affecting microbial growth.
Unit II: Photosynthesis: Adsorption light, photosynthetic and accessory pigments, (chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoides, phycobilliproteins); Oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthesis in prokaryotes, electron transport chain and phosphorylation; Calvin cycle; effect of light, temperature, pH, and CO2 on the rate of photosynthesis; Photosynthetic yield and Photorespiration.
Unit III: Respiratory metabolism: Glycolytic pathway of carbohydrates breakdown, Embden Meyer Hoff pathway, Kreb's cycle, and Entner-Duodoroff pathway, Phospho-ketolase pathway; Pentose phosphate pathway; oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation; Gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, reverse TCA cycle; Fermentation of carbohydrates, homo and heterolactic fermentation.
Unit IV: Carbohydrates: Structure and properties of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, glycogen and their derivatives; structure of lignin; General characters of fats, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, biosynthesis of fatty acids, oxidation of fatty acids; distribution and functions of lipids in microbes.
Unit V: Classification, structure and properties of proteins, Structure of amino acids, classification of essential amino acids based on polarity, protein sequencing, peptide synthesis; methods of protein purification. Classification and nomenclature of enzymes; mechanism of enzyme action, enzyme inhibition, allosteric enzymes, enzyme kinetics. Principles of Physical chemistry; Thermodynamic principles in biology; Energy rich bonds; Weak interactions; Bioenergetics.
Course AM 202: Molecular Biology and Microbial Genetics
Unit I: Nucleic acids as genetic information carriers: experimental evidences; DNA structure: historical aspects & current aspects, Structure of chromosomes (lampbrush and polytene chromosomes); melting of DNA, types of DNA. DNA replication in prokaryotes: types of polymerases, steps: initiation, elongation (Asymmetric & dimeric nature of DNA polymerase III & simultaneous synthesis of leading & lagging strands), termination. DNA replication in eukaryotes: types of polymerases, replication origins & initiation, steps involved in synthesis of telomeric DNA. Various modes of replication; Central dogma of life.
Unit II: Types and structural features of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). Transcription in prokaryotes: RNA polymerase, promoter, steps: initiation, elongation & termination, antitermination. Trancription in eukaryotes: types of RNA polymerases, promoter, enhancer & silencer sites for initiation, transcription factors, steps: initiation, elongation & termination. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Post trancriptional modification of mRNA: capping, polyadenylation & splicing (group I introns, group II introns, hn RNA using spliceosome/snurposome). Ribozymes.
Unit III: Basic features of the genetic code. Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; steps : details of initiation, elongation & termination, roles of various factors in the above steps, inhibitors of protein synthesis. Synthesis of exported proteins on membrane bound ribosomes: signal hypothesis. Post translational modification of proteins.
Unit IV: Regulation of gene expression: operon concept, negative & positive regulation, instability of bacterial mRNA, inducers and corepressors, catabolite repression. Negative regulation- E. coli lac operon; positive regulation- E. coli ara operon; regulation by attenuation- his and trp operons; anti-termination-N protein and nut sites in lambda.
Unit V: Mutations : Spontaneous and induced mutations; mutagens (physical mutagens: non ionizing radiation; chemical mutagens: Base analogues, alkylating agents, deaminating agents, intercalating agents & others); Molecular mechanism of mutagensis. Detection & isolation of mutants. DNA repair mechanisms. Plasmids and their types; Gene transfer mechanisms; Transposable elements; Molecular biology of cancer; Genetic load and genetic counseling.
Course AM 203: Recombinant DNA Technology
Unit I: Basics of r-DNA technology: Enzymes used in r-DNA technology ; DNA ligase, DNA Polymerase, Klenow Fragment, Reverse transcriptase, exonuclease, endonuclease, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Polynucleotide kinase, and dephosphatases, Restriction modification systems and their types; Ligation- joining of DNA molecules together: blunt end ligation, joining with linkers, adapters & homopolymer tailing; Applications of rDNA technology.
Unit II: PCR and its various schemes (basic PCR, inverse-PCR, multiplex-PCR, RT-PCR, anchored-PCR, asymmetric-PCR, realtime-PCR, etc.) and applications; DNA sequencing methods: dideoxy and chemical methods, strategies for sequencing large DNA fragments, automated sequencing and pyrosequencing. Non-radioactive & radioactive labeling of probes. RFLP, RAPD, REMI, PFGE, microarray and northern blotting.
Unit III Cloning vectors: general properties, plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids, shuttle vectors, bacterial artificial chromosomes. Eukaryotic cloning vectors for yeast (YIp, YEp, YCp, YAC), higher plants (Ti based vectors; binary and cointegrate, chloroplast-based vectors) & for animal cells (SV 40, vaccinia, retroviruses). Isolation and purification of genomic and plasmid DNA
Unit IV: Introduction of recombinant vectors into bacterial & non bacterial cells. Selection of clones: colony hybridization, plaque hybridization, immunochemical methods & southern blotting. Gene libraries: genomic library, screening of libraries, Shot gun approach; cDNA library (different methods for synthesizing cDNA molecules),
Unit V: Expression vectors for expressing foreign genes in E. coli: problems associated with the production of r-proteins in E. coli, production of r-protein by eukaryotic cells. Applications of gene technology: production of pharmaceuticals- humulin, somatotropin, somatostatin, recombinant vaccines, Brief discussion of Bt-cotton, Flavr Savr tomato and golden rice.
Course AM 204: Environmental Microbial Technology
Unit I: Definitions, biotic and abiotic environment; Composition and structure of environment. History of Environmental microbiology; Microorganism in the Environment; Microbial habitats in the aquatic and extreme environment; Biogeochemical cycling.
Unit II: Biodegradation: Microbial degradation of natural substances - cellulose, xylan, lignin, chitin and keratin; Biodeterioration: Biodeterioration of cultural heritage; microbial deterioration of paper, textile, wood, paint and metal corrosion. Principal methods for their protection.
Unit III: Bioremediation: Microbial degradation of xenobiotics; hydrocarbons; clean up of sites polluted with oil spills, heavy metals and chlorinated solvents; biological treatment of effluents of textile, sugar, leather and paper and pulp industry; Recovery of minerals and metals from ores.
Unit IV: Techniques in environmental microbiology: Methods for determination of numbers, biomass and activities of microbes in soil, water, air and on plant surfaces and dead organic materials. Environment sample collection and processing.
Unit V: Microbiology of waste disposal: Microbes in solid waste and solid waste management; Sewage treatment systems (primary, secondary, tertiary and disinfection); Disinfection of potable water supplies; Indicators organism for water safety; Microbial assessment of water quality; Standards for tolerable levels of faecal contamination.