Course AM 301: Medical Microbiology
Unit I: Classification of medically important bacteria; Normal flora of human body, role of the resident flora; collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important bacterial infections, pathogenic microorganisms. Brief account of major air, water and soil borne diseases of microbial origin and their prevention and control measures.
Unit II: Bacteriology: Important human diseases caused by Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Neisseria; Bacillus; Corynebacterium; Clostridium; Organisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella and Proteus); Pseudomonas; Haemophilus; Mycobacterium; Antibacterial drugs and susceptibility test; Bacterial vaccines. Mechanism of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
Unit III: Virology: Collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important viral diseases; Mumps; Measles; Influenza; Adenovirus; Enterovirus; Rhinovirus; Poxvirus; Hepatitis; Herpesvirus; AIDS; Antiviral drugs; Viral vaccines; Interferons; Tumor viruses; antiviral agents and susceptibility test.
Unit IV: Mycology: Classification of medically relevant fungi: Collection of clinical sample and laboratory diagnosis of important human fungal diseases: Phycomycosis; Candidiasis; Dermatophytosis; Aspergillosis; Otomycosis; Cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses; Systemic mycoses; Oppurtunistic mycoses; Antifungal agents and susceptibility test.
Unit V: Parasitology: Important diseases caused by intestinal and urogenital protozoa: Entamoeba; Giardia; Trichomonas; Blood and tissue protozoa; Plasmodium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; Cestodes: Taenia; Trematodes: Schistosoma; Paragonimus; Nematodes: Ascaris; Ancylostoma; Necator; their laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; antiparasitic agents and susceptibility test.
Course AM 302: Molecular Immunology
Unit I: Introduction to the immune system: Innate immunity; anatomic, physiological, phagocytic & inflammatory barriers. Adaptive immunity; natural & artificial immunity. Cells involved in immune response: lymphoid lineage (producing B & T lymphocytes) & Myeloid lineage (phagocytes: macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils and auxillary cells; basophils, mast cells & platelets). Organs involved in immune system: primary & secondary lymphoid organs.
Unit II: Antigens: preparation of antigens, types of antigens- haptens, superantigens & cluster of differentiation molecules (CDs), Processing and presentation of antigens.. Immunoglobulins: structure & types of immunoglobulins, genetic diversity of immunoglobulins, catalytic antibodies. B-cell biology & T-cell biology (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules). HLA and H-2 systems.
Unit III: Vaccines immunizations: types of vaccines (DNA vaccines, recombinant DNA vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, multivalent subunit vaccines) & their characteristics. Immunization of test animals, hyperimmune antisera; Prophylactic immunization; Immune Disorders: hypersensitivities, autoimmune diseases, transplantation (tissue) rejection, immunodeficiency’s.
Unit IV: Complement: Classical alternative and lectin pathway of complement activation, regulation of complement system, biological consequence of complement activation.
Cytokines: interferons (α, β & γ), TNF, interleukins (1-16), hematopoietins & chemokines, Regulation of immune response.
Unit V: Monoclonal antibodies: hybridoma technology, applications of monoclonal antibodies. Antigen-Antibody reactions in vitro: agglutination reactions (Widal, Haemagglutination), precipitation reactions (Immunodiffusion, Immuno electrophorectic method), Immunoblotting, ELISA, RIA, fluorescence immunosorbent assay, immunoelectronmicroscopy.
Course AM 303: Agricultural, Food and Dairy Microbiology
Unit I: Microorganisms as biofertilizers (Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Cyanobacteria, Mycorrhiza and actinorrhiza) and biopesticides (Trichoderma, Beauveria, Metarrhizium, Nomuraea, Bacillus thuringiensis and NPVs): Commercial production of biofertilizers and biopesticides; Their applications and limitations for Indian agriculture. Principles and mechanism of biological control; Bioherbicide and weed control, their role in agriculture; Microbiology of composting; reclamation of barren lands using microbial technology.
Unit II: Disease forecasting and basic principles of plant disease control; Pathology, etiology and control of economically important crop diseases of wheat, rice, barley, maize, sugarcane, vegetables and pulses caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses; Management and storage of agricultural products; Post-harvest diseases; their prevention and their control.
Unit III: Important microbes involved in spoilage of food, meat, poultry, vegetables and dairy products; food preservation. Microbial deterioration of cereals, pulses, fish and sea-foods during storage; Toxins : Bacterial and mycotoxins, Important microbes secreting toxins, chemical nature of important toxins; their role in food poisoning; physiology and mechanism of action, modification and detoxification; prevention and control of toxin contamination.
Unit IV: Microbial biomass: Single cell proteins and myco-protein;Use of microbial enzymes in food; Food quality monitoring, Fermented foods and traditional fungal foods (shoya, miso, tempe etc.). Fermented vegetable, meat and milk products (cheeses, butter and yoghurt).
Unit V: Feed for cattle’s, use of microbes and microbial enzymes in the improvement of nutritive quality of feed. Fermented feeds (Ensiling feed grains and hay crops). Aids to ensiling. Product of microbial processes added to feeds; Rumen microbiology.
Course AM 304: Microbial Technology, Fermentation, IPR and Patents
Unit I: Sources and characters of industrial microbes, their isolation, purification & maintenance. Screening of useful strains: primary screening & secondary screening. Strain improvement through random mutation (random & rational selection), Role of genetic recombination & genetic engineering in strain improvement; Fermentation technology: microbial growth kinetics in batch, continuous & fed-batch fermentation process.Stirred aerobic bioreactor: principles & designing. Raw materials used in fermentation media. Solid state fermentation & submerged fermentation: their advantages & disadvantages.
Unit II: Microbial transformations with special reference to steroids & alkaloids. Primary & secondary metabolites. Commercial production of antibiotics with special reference to penicillin, streptomycin and their derivatives.
Unit III: Microbiology & production of alcoholic beverages: malt beverages, distilled beverages, wine & champagne. Commercial production of organic acids like acetic, lactic, citric, & gluconic acids. Commercial production of important amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine & tryptophan), insulin & vitamins (vitamin B12, riboflavin & vitamin A).
Unit IV: Immobilization of microbial enzymes and whole cells and their applications in industries. Bioprocess Engineering: Downstream processing, various steps for large scale protein purification. Single cell proteins, Production of SCP from waste materials and renewable resources. Industrial enzymes production: Cellulases, Xylanases, Proteases, Amylases, Lipases & Pectinases and their applications.
Unit V:. Bioconversion of wastes for fuels (gases fuel and fuel from algae); Production of bio ethanol from molasses, starch and cellulosic materials; Microbial production of hydrogen gas. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, Secrets; Patenting of microbiological materials and GMOs; patenting of genes and DNA sequences.