Medical Microbiology Proposed


Courses Offered : M.Sc. (Microbiology), M.Sc. (Applied Microbiology), M.Sc. (Bioinformatics)

Department of Microbiology
(Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut)




M.Sc. Bioinformatics


Course BI 101- Fundamentals of Computer System and Programming Language

Unit I-  Introduction to Bioinformatics Definition & Concept; Human Genome Project; Role of Bioinformatics, Introduction of Internet in Biology & Objectivity; Services of Internet used for Biological Data (E-Mail, File Transfer Protocol, Usenet, Telnet). Important bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, DDBJ).
Unit II- Computer System- Definition and characteristics; Components (Input/Output unit, Control Unit, Primary Storage Unit, Arithmetic and Logic Unit); Types of Memory              (Magnetic Core Memory, Semiconductor Memory ie RAM & ROM, Bubble Memory); Communication Pathways (Control Bus, Address Bus, Data Bus); Classification of Computers (according to logic & size), Generation of Computers; Introduction to Software; Definition; Classification of Software; Translators (Compiler & Interpreter); Applications of Number Systems (Decimal, Binary , Octal, Hexadecimal) & Logic Gates (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR).
Unit III- Networking- Definition, Client, Server, Types (LAN, WAN, MAN); Network Connecting Devices; Topologies (Ring Network, Star Network, Star Network, Tree Network, Bus Network) and their advantages & disadvantages. Elements of Networking (Network Services such as File Services, Database Services, Print Services, Application Services); Transmission Medias (Coaxial Cable, Fiber Optics, Twisted Pair).
Unit IV- Functional Structure of Programming in C: Concepts of flowcharting and algorithm development; Tokens in C (Constant, Variable & Keywords); Data types; Operators (Arithmetic Operators, Relational Operators, Increment Operators, Decrement Operators, Assignment Operators & Conditional Operators), if statement; if-else statement; switch statement; for statement; while statement; do-while statement; Odd Looping.
Unit V-Arrays in C: One Dimensional Array; Two Dimensional Array; String Handling in Array (Declaration of String Variable, Printing of a string, Concatenation of a String, Comparison of the String). Built-in Functions & User Defined Functions (Definition; syntax; main function; printf function; scanf function; getchar function;  getche function; putchar function; strcmp function; strcpy function; strcat function; strlen function; Declaration and definition of User-Defined Function; Call by Value; Call by Reference; Recursion); Pointers in C (Definition; Objectivity; Initialization of Pointers; Pointers & Array; Pointers & Function).

Course BI 102- Biomathematics

Unit I: - Matrices: Algebra of matrices, transpose and inverse of a matrix, determinants. Arithmetic and Geometric Series, Binomial Theorem. Permutation and combinations. Introduction to set theory, Functions, Polynomials, limits and continuity.             

Unit II: - Differentiation and Integration: Derivative of simple algebraic and trigonometric functions. Maxima and minima. Integration of some standard functions. Integral by parts. Applications of Integral calculus in biology. Definite integral. Ordinary differential equations (first order) ‑ example from biology. 

Unit III: - 2D Coordinate Geometry: Equation of a line, circle, ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola. 3D geometry: Equation of sphere, cone.

Unit IV:- Numerical Analysis: Gaussian Elimination and Gauss Jordan Methods for the solution of system of linear equations. Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations by Bisection Method and Newton- Raphson Method.

Unit V: - Interpolation: Newton’s formulae, Lagrange’s formula. Curve fitting by Method of least squares. Numerical differentiation using Newton formulae. Numerical Integration: Trapezodial rule, Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules.

Course BI 103- Biological Database System

Unit I:- Database System- Definition; Purpose of Database System; Advantages of Database System; Components of Database System (., Hardware, Software & Users), Database Administrator; Data Administrator; Data Models (Relational,  Network, Hierarchical); Three Level Architecture for Database System (Internal Level; Conceptual Level; External Level); Data Independence; Data Abstraction; Mapping; Data Definition Language; Data Manipulation Language;   Data Sub Language; Role of Schemas in Three Level Architecture; Client/Server architecture; Distributed Processing; Database Technologies (Flat Files, Relational & Object).
Unit II:- Relational Database- Definition; Relational Data Model (Binary, Ternary, Quaternary & n-ary Relation); Important terms in Relational database system (Tuple, Records, Fields, Domain, Degrees, Cardinality); Keys(Primary Key,    Candidate Key, Composite Key, Foreign Key& Alternate Key).
Unit III:- Structured Query Language- Creating Table; Applying Column & Table Constraints; Inserting Values in Table; Deletion(of Rows & Table); Updating Values; Altering Table; Retrieving Values from Table; Revoke Command; Drop Command; Grant Command; Commit Command; Rollback Command.
Unit IV:- Biological Database- Primary Database & Secondary Database; Submitting  Sequence  to the Database and Information Retrieval through LocusLink; Sequence Databases (EMBL, GenBank, DDBJ.
Unit V:-  Protein and other databases: SWISS-PROT, PIR,  TrEMBL); Protein Family/Domain Databases (PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS & SMART), cDNA Libraries and ESTs & Structure Database (PDB, CATH, SCOP).

 Course BI 104- Microbiology & Immunology

Unit  I  : Discovery of microbial world, controversy over spontaneous generation; origin of life. Microbial evolution and diversity; five kingdom and eight-kingdom classification.
Unit II  : General account of prokaryotes: structural organization of Eubacteria and Archae (cell membrane, cytoplasmic matrix, inclusion bodies, nucleoid, flagella, pilli and endospore); General characters of eukaryotic microbes, structure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell, Evolutionary relationship of each group based on modern systems of classification.    
Unit III : History and discovery of viruses; nature of viruses; General characters of viruses; Nomenclature and Classification of viruses; Bacteriophage: Structure and life cycle pattern of T-even phage; Genome organization of viruses.
Unit IV Introduction to the immune system: Innate immunity; anatomic, physiological, phagocytic & inflammatory barriers. Adaptive immunity; natural & artificial immunity. Cells involved in immune response: lymphoid lineage (producing B & T lymphocytes) & Myeloid lineage (phagocytes: macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils. And  auxillary cells; basophils, mast cells & platelets). Organs involved in immune system: primary & secondary lymphoid organs. 
Unit V : Types of antigens; Structure & types of Immunoglobulins, genetic diversity of immunoglobulins; Cytokines: B-cell biology: Antigen-Antibody binding, B-cell activation. T-cell biology: major histocompatibility complex molecules; Types of vaccines & their characteristics; Immune disorders; Hybridoma technology, applications of monoclonal antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.

Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course BI 105- Practical 1 (Course BI 101 & Course BI 102)

Course BI 106-Practical 2 (Course BI 103 & Course BI 104)