Course GM I01: Techniques in Microbiology
Unit I: Microscopy & Staining techniques: Basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, dark field, phase contrast, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry. Specimen preparation and basic principles of Simple, Gram, Capsule, Endospore, Flagella, Acid fast, Flurochrome staining, Nuclear/ Geimsa’s staining.
Unit II: Basic principles and methods of sterilization: control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF.
Unit III: Basic principles and methods of media preparation: types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; pH and Buffers; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes.
Unit IV: Basic principles and applications of Spectrophotometry: Chromatography: Beer-Lambert law; interaction of radiation with matter, absorption of radiation, emision of radiation; UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption Spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography), GLC, HPLC and FPLC.
Unit V: Miscellaneous techniques : Principles and applications of electrophoresis for protein and DNA; Iso-electric focusing and 2D gel electrophoresis; Autoradiography, X-Ray diffraction; Centrifugation; Ultracentifugation; Dialysis, Ultrafiltration; Lyophilization and peed vac.
Course GM 102: General Microbiology and Bacteriology
Unit I: Discovery of microbial world: History of Microbiology and contribution of Antonie Von Leeuwenhoek, Joseph Lister, Paul Ehrlich, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Martinus Beijerinck, Sergei Winogradsky, Alexander Fleming, Selman Waksman; the spontaneous generation controversy; Current thoughts on microbial evolution including the origin of life; Scope and relevance of Microbiology.
Unit II:Taxonomy and classification: Haeckel’s, Whittaker’s, Carl Woese and Cavalier Smith’s concepts of classification; Modern trends in the classification of microbial world including 16S rDNA sequencing, Numerical and molecular taxonomy; Introduction to the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology; General characters of major groups of eubacteria.
Unit III: Morphology and Ultrastructure of Bacteria: size, shape and arrangement of bacteria; structure and chemical composition of cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria and archae; Structure, composition and function of cell membrane, capsule, flagella, pilli, gas vesicles, cytoplasmic matrix, reserve food materials, chromosomes, carboxysomes, magnetosomes and phycobilisomes; nucleoid and endospores.
Unit IV: Cultivation of bacteria: aerobic, anaerobic; nutritional types of bacteria, culture media used, growth curve, generation time, growth kinetics, synchronous growth; batch and continuous culture; measurement of growth (biomass, turbidity, dry weight and protein content); Physical and chemical factors affecting microbial growth; control of microbes by physical and chemical agents.
Unit V: (a) General characters and classification of Archae; General characteristics of Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Methanosarcina, Halobacterium and Thermococcus; Adaptations and role of Archea in the evolution of microbial world.
(b) General characters of Cyanobacteria; Classification of Cyanobacteria; Their ultrastructure and reproduction; economic importance of Cyanobacteria.
Course GM 103: VirologyUnit I: General Virology: Brief outline on discovery of viruses, nomenclature and classification of viruses: distinctive properties of viruses; morphology & ultrastructure; capsidids & their arrangements; types of envelops and their composition, viral genome, their types and structures
Unit II: General characters and ultrastructure of major plant viruses: Tobamovirus group (TMV); Tymovirus group (Circular mosaic virus); Tomato spotted wilt virus; Cauliflower mosaic virus. Effects of these viruses on plants and various histological and physiological changes induced due to viral infection.
Unit III: General characters and ultrastructure of major human and animal viruses: Adenovirus, Poxvirus (DNA containing), Picornavirus, Retrovirus (RNA containing). Mechanism of virus adsorption and entry into the host cell including genome replication and mRNA production by animal viruses, mechanism of RNA synthesis, mechanism of DNA synthesis, transcription mechanism and post transcriptional processing, translation of viral proteins, assembly, exit and maturation of progeny virions.
Unit IV: Bacteriophages: Structure and life cycle patterns of T-even phages; one step growth curve and burst size; Bacteriophage typing; Structure of Cyanophages, Mycophages. General principles of phage-bacterium interaction and growth cycle studies of RNA and DNA phages. The biochemistry of phages infected bacterium. Phage genetics.
Unit V: (a) Viroids and Prions: General characters and structure of viroids, their common plant diseases and control; General characters of Prions, their structure and major diseases caused by them; controversies about their nature.
(b) Cultivation of viruses: Growth of viruses in embryonated egg, in experimental animals and in cell cultures-primary and secondary cell lines, suspension cell cultures and monolayer cell cultures. Assay of viruses: Physical and chemical methods of assay, (protein, nucleic acid, radioactivity tracers, electron microscopy, etc); Infectivity assay of animal viruses (plaque method, pock counting, end point method) and infectivity assay of plant viruses. Morphology and ultra-structure of bacteriophages, one step growth curve(latent period, Eclipse period, burst size), life cycle and other details with special reference to T (odd and even).
Course GM 104: Phycology, Mycology & Protozoology
Unit I: General characteristics of eukaryotic microbes and current status of fungi: Ultrastructure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell; classification of fungi with reference to Ainsworth; General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Myxomycota, Mastigomycotina.
Unit II: Important genera of fungi: General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.
Unit III: Heterothallism; sex hormones in fungi; physiological specialization and phylogeny of fungi. Parasexual life cycle; Symbiotic associations of fungi with algae; Economic importance of fungi.
Unit IV: General characters of algae: Classification of algae; Somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Algal nutrition, ecology and biotechnology.
Unit V: (a) General characters of protozoans: Structure and reproduction of microbiologically important genera of protozoans: Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium.
(b) General characters of microbiologically important Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator; Cestodes: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus granulosus and Trematodes: Paragonimus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma.