Unit I: Nutritional requirements of major groups of microbes (bacteria & fungi): Nutritional uptake; transport across the membranes and cell wall (diffusion, passive diffusion, active transport, group translocation and iron uptake).
Unit II: Nitrogen fixation in symbiotic and free living system: oxygen and hydrogen regulation of nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification and ammonifying bacteria, Pathway of nitrate assimilation in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic systems, transamination and deamination reactions.
Unit III: Photosynthesis: Absorption of light, photosynthetic and accessory pigments, (chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoides, phycobilliproteins); Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in prokaryotes, electron transport chain; phosphorylation; Calvin cycle; effect of light, temperature, pH and CO2 on photosynthesis; Photosynthetic yield and Photorespiration.
Unit IV: Respiratory metabolism: Glycolytic pathway of carbohydrates breakdown, glycolysis, embden Meyer hoff pathway,Kreb's cycle and Entner-Duodoroff pathway, Phospho-ketolase pathway; Pentose phosphate pathway; oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, fermentation of carbohydrates, homo and heterolactic fermentation.
Unit V: Microbial metabolism: Anabolism, catabolism; Sulphur metabolism, Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.
Course GM 202: Molecular Biology
Unit I: Nucleic acids as genetic information carriers: Experimental evidences; DNA structure; historical aspects & current concepts; types of DNA, melting of DNA; DNA replication in prokaryotes: types of polymerases, steps: initiation, elongation (asymmetric & dimeric nature of DNA Polymerase III & simultaneous synthesis of leading & lagging strands), termination. DNA replication in eukaryotes: types of polymerases, replication origins & initiation, steps involved, synthesis of telomeric DNA. Various modes of replication. Superhelicity in DNA, linking number, topological properties, mechanism of action of topoisomerases. Central dogma of life.
Unit II: Types and structural features of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA): Transcription in prokaryotes: RNA polymerase, promoter, steps: initiation, elongation & termination, antitermination. Trancription in eukaryotes: types of RNA polymerases (I, II & III), promoter, enhancer & silencer sites for initiation, transcription factors, steps: initiation, elongation & termination. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Post trancriptional modification of mRNA: capping, polyadenylation & splicing (group I introns, group II introns, hnRNA using spliceosome/snurposome), Ribozymes.
Unit III: Basic features of the genetic code: Central dogma of life. Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; steps-details of initiation, elongation & termination, roles of various factors in the above steps, inhibitors of protein synthesis. Synthesis of exported proteins on membrane bound ribosomes: signal hypothesis. Post translational modification of proteins.
Unit IV: Regulation of gene expression: operon concept, negatve & positive regulation, instability of bacterial mRNA, inducers and corepressors, catabolite repression. Negative regulation-E. coli. lac operon; positive regulation- E. coli. ara operon; regulation by attenuation- his and trp operons.
Unit V: Anti-termination-N protein and nut sites in lambda: Global regulatory responses; heat shock response, stringent response and regulation by small molecules such as cAMP and ppGpp. Regulation of rRNA and tRNA synthesis.
Course GM 203: Microbial Biochemistry
Unit I: Carbohydrates: classification and properties, Chemical structure and properties of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose.
Unit II: General characters of fats: Primary and secondary metabolites in microbes; Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; biosynthesis of fatty acids, oxidation of fatty acids;
Unit III: Structure of proteins: methods of purification and sequencing of proteins, synthesis of peptides, properties of proteins (acid-base property and solubility); Structure of amino acids, classification of essential amino acids based on polarity.
Unit IV: Laws of thermodynamics: free energy & reactions, oxidation reduction reactions; Classification and nomenclature of enzymes; mechanism of enzyme action, enzyme inhibition, allostery, Cofactors; coenzymes and prosthetic groups; multi enzyme complex (Pyruvate dehydrogenase) and isozyme (Lactate dehydrogenase); Non proteinaceous enzyme (Ribozyme and Benzyme) Derivation of Michaelis - Menton equation and its significance in enzyme kinetic studies. Lineweaver-Burke plot, Haldane-Briggs relationship, sigmoidal kinetics steady state kinetics and transient phases of enzyme reaction.
Unit V: (a) Fractionation of microbial cells: Separation of different cell organelles and chemical analysis of microbial cells for carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids.
(b) Outline of structure and classification of secondary metabolites viz. antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin), alkaloids (Ergot toxins), Flavinoids, Vitamins and bacterial toxins.
Course GM 204: Biostatistics & Bioinformatics
Unit I: Frequency distribution; measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode); Measures of dispersion: mean deviation and standard deviation. Correlation and regression: Scatter Diagram, Coefficient of Correlation, Rank correlation. Lines of Regression.
Unit II: Probability: Basic concepts related to probability theory, classical probability. Probability distributions: Introduction and simple properties of Binomial, Poisson, Normal and skewed distribution and their applications in biology. Sampling: Concept of sampling and sampling techniques.
Unit III: Testing of hypotheses: Some basic concepts, Errors in hypothesis testing; critical region, Students t-test for the significance of population mean and the difference between two population means; Paired t-test; Chi square test for population variance, goodness of fit and for the independence of two attributes in a contingency table; F-test for the equality of two population variance; Analysis of variance-- One-way and two-way analysis of variance.
Unit IV: Overview of computer systems: Introduction and classification; Components of computer; generation of computers; Number system; Flow chart; Basics for operating system (MS-DOS, WINDOWS, Unix and Linux); Introduction to softwares; MS-Office (MS-WORD, Power Point, MS- Excel) and Photoshop.
Unit V: Introduction to networking (LAN, WAN, MAN) servers, application of networking; downloading files with anonymous FTP, Gopher, Mosaic; Introduction to Bioinformatics; Biological databases (nucleic acid protein sequence database); obtaining BLAST Documentation and Help; Important bioinformatics websites (NCBI, EBI, DDBJ, etc.).