Course GM 301: Medical Microbiology
Unit I: Historical developments in medical microbiology: Normal flora of human body, role of the resident flora; collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important bacterial infections, pathogenic microorganisms. Brief account of major air, water and soil borne diseases of microbial origin and their preventive and control measures.
Unit II: Bacteriology: Important human diseases caused by Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Pneumococcus; Neisseria; Bacillus; Corynebacterium; Clostridium; Organisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae; Pseudomonas; Yersinia; Haemophilus; Mycobacterium; Antibacterial agents and susceptibility test; Bacterial vaccines.
Unit III: Virology: Collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important viral diseases; Mumps; Measles; Influenza; Adenovirus; Enterovirus; Rhinovirus; Poxvirus; Hepatitis virus; Herpesvirus; AIDS; Antiviral drugs; Viral vaccines; Interferons; Tumor viruses, antiviral agents & susceptibility test.
Unit IV: Mycology: Classification of medically relevant fungi; Collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important human fungal diseases : Candidiasis; Dermatophytosis; Aspergillosis; Otomycosis; Cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses; Systemic mycoses; Oppurtunistic mycoses; Antifungal agents (specific to disease to included in course) & their susceptibility test.
Unit V: Parasitology: Important diseases caused by intestinal and urogenital protozoa: Entamoeba; Giardia; Trichomonas; Blood and tissue protozoa; Plasmodium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; Cestodes: Taenia; Trematodes: Schistosoma; Paragonimus; Nematodes: Ascaris; Ancylostoma; Necator; their laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention, antiparasitic agenta and susceptibility test.
Course GM 302: Immunology and Clinical Microbiology
Unit I: Introduction to the immune system: Innate immunity; anatomic, physiological, phagocytic & inflammatory barriers. Adaptive immunity; natural & artificial immunity. Cells involved in immune response: lymphoid lineage (producing B & T lymphocytes) & Myeloid lineage (phagocytes: macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils. Auxillary cells; basophils, mast cells & platelets). Organs involved in immune system: primary & secondary lymphoid organs.
Unit II: Antigens: Preparation of antigens, types of antigens- haptens, super antigens & clusters of differentiation molecules (CDs); Processing and presentation of antigens, Immunoglobulins: structure & types of immunoglobulins, genetic diversity of immunoglobulins, catalytyic antibodies. B-cell biology & T-cell biology (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules) HLA and H-2 Systems.
Unit III: Vaccines and Immunization: Types of Vaccines (DNA, Recombinant DNA, Synthetic Peptide and Multivalent vaccine) and their characteristics, Immunization of test animals, hyperimmunization, prophylactic immunization. Immune disorders; hypersensitivities, autoimmune diseases, transplantation (tissue) Rejection, Immunodeficiencies.
Unit IV: Complement: Classical, alternative and lectin pathway of complement activation, regulation of complement system, biological consequence of complement activation. Cytokines; interferons (α, β & γ), TNF, interleukins (1-16), hematopoietins & chemokines, regulation of immune response.
Unit V: Clnical Microbiology: Clinical sample collection and serological testing for important pathogens (bacterial, viral and fungal). Antigen-Antibody reactions in vitro; agglutination reactions (Widal, Haemagglutination), precipitation reactions (Immunodiffusion, Immuno electrophorectic method), Immunoblotting, ELISA, RIA, fluorescence immunosorbent assay, immunoelectronmicroscopy. Hybridoma technology, applications of monoclonal antibodies.
Course GM 303: Agricultural Microbiology
Unit I: Microorganisms as biofertilizers: Biofertilizers and symbiotic associations; Rhizobium - taxonomy, physiology, host-Rhizobium interaction, mass cultivation; Associative and non symbiotic association-Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Cyanobacteria Mycorrhiza and actinorrhiza in plant nutrition and stress tolerance; Interaction of mycorrhiza with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas; Commercial production of biofertilizers, formulations and BIS specifications; their applications and limitations for Indian agriculture.
Unit II: (a) Disease forecasting and basic principles of plant disease control.
(b) Pathology, etiology and control of economically important crop diseases of wheat, rice, barley, maize, sugarcane, vegetables and pulses caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses.
Unit III: Microorganisms as biopesticides: Microbiology of plant surfaces; Principles and mechanism of biological control; biocontrol agents for insect pest and weed control. Commercial production of biopesticides with reference to Bacillus thuringiensis; integrated pest management; Their applications and limitations for Indian agriculture.
Unit IV: Soil microbiology: Soil as a habitat for microorganisms; Soil enzymes, Soil water & microbial activity, Soil microflora. Soil fertility and management of agricultural soils. Microbiology of composting and compost enrichment, and green manuring; reclamation of barren lands using microbial technology. Microbiology of plant surfaces: Rhizosphere, phylloplane and rhizoplane microbes & their interaction with plants.
Unit V: (a) Microbial diseases of farm animals, their prevention and control. Improvement of nutritive value of cattle feed using microbial activities (silage).
(b) Management & storage of agricultural products, post-harvest diseases, their prevention and control.
Course GM 304: Industrial Microbiology
Unit I: Historical account of microbes in industrial microbiology; sources and characters of industrially potent microbes; their isolation, purification & maintenance; Screening of useful strains; primary screening & secondary screening; Strain improvement through random mutation (random & rational selection), genetic recombination & genetic engineering; Microbial growth kinetics in batch, continuous & fed-batch fermentation process.
Unit II: Aerobic bioreactor: principles & designing; types of bioreactors; Raw materials used in industrial fermentation media. Solid state fermentation & submerged fermentation: their advantages & disadvantages.Microbial transformations with special reference to steroids& alkaloids. Primary & secondary metabolites. Commercial production of antibiotics with special reference to penicillin, streptomycin and their derivatives.
Unit III: Microbiology & production of alcoholic beverages; Malt beverages, distilled beverages, wine & champagne; Commercial production of organic acids like acetic, lactic, citric, & gluconic acids; Commercial production of important amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine & tryptophan), insulin & vitamins (vitaminB12, riboflavin & vitamin A).
Unit IV: Immobilization of microbial enzymes and whole cells and their applications in industries; Bioprocess Engineering; Downstream processing, various steps for large scale protein purification.
Unit V: Industrial enzymes production; Cellulases, Xylanases, Pectinases, Amylases, Lipases & Proteases and their applications. Petroleum microbiology; Biofuels (ethanol and methane) from organic residues; fuels from algae; Mushroom cultivation; Patent protection and IPR for biological inventions.