Course GM 401: Environmental Microbiology
Unit I: Microbes in extreme environments: Environment induced genetic and physiological adaptations in microbes; Characteristic features of thermophiles, psychrophiles, methanogens, methylotrophs, acidophiles, alkalophiles, halophiles and their survival strategies.
Unit II: Biodegradation and Biogeochemical cycling: Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic substances, keratin and chitin and Xenobiotics; Microbes in nutrient cycling with special reference to carbon, phosphorous, sulfur and nitrogen cycles.
Unit III: Biodeterioration: Biodeterioration of properties & cultural heritage; microbial deterioration of paper, textile, wood, paint and metal corrosion. Principal methods for their protection.
Unit IV: (a) Bioremediation: Microbial degradation of pesticides; hydrocarbons; clean up of sites polluted with oil spills, heavy metals and chlorinated solvents; biological treatment of effluents of sugar, pulp and paper industry.
(b) Recovery of minerals and metals from ores.
Unit V: (a) Techniques in environmental microbiology: Methods for determination of numbers, biomass and activities of microbes in soil, water, air and on plant surfaces and dead organic materials.
(b)Microbes in waste disposal: Microbes in solid waste and sewage treatment systems. Disinfection of potable water supplies; Bacterial indicators of water safety; Microbial assessment of water quality; Standards for tolerable levels of fecal contamination.
Course GM 402: Genetic Engineering
Unit I: Basics of r-DNA technology: Enzymes used in r-DNA technology; DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, Klenow fragment, reverse transcriptase, exonuclease, endonuclease, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, polynucleotide kinase, and dephosphatases; restriction modification systems and their types; sticky and blunt end ligation, joining with linkers, adapters & homopolymer tailing.
Unit II: PCR its various schemes and applications (Basic PCR, inverse-PCR, multiplex-PCR, RT-PCR, anchored-PCR, asymmetric-PCR, realtime-PCR); DNA sequencing methods: dideoxy and chemical methods, strategies for sequencing large DNA fragments, automated sequencing and pyrosequencing; Non-radioactive & radioactive labeling of probes; RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, PFGE, microarray and northern blotting.
Unit III Cloning vectors: General properties, plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids, shuttle vectors, bacterial artificial chromosomes. Eukaryotic cloning vectors for yeast (YIp, YEp, YCp, YAC), higher plants (Ti based vectors, binary and cointegrate, chloroplast-based vectors) & for animal cells (SV 40, vaccinia, retroviruses). Isolation and purification of genomic and plasmid DNA.
Unit IV: Introduction of recombinant vectors into bacterial & non bacterial cells: Selection of recombinant clones: colony hybridization, plaque hybridization, immunochemical methods & southern blotting. Gene libraries: genomic library, screening of libraries (Shot gun approach), cDNA library (different methods for synthesizing cDNA molecules).
Unit V: Expression vectors for expressing foreign genes in E. coli: Problems associated with the production of r-proteins in E. coli, production of r-protein by eukaryotic cells. Applications of gene techonology: production of pharmaceuticals- humulin, somatotropin, somatostatin, recombinant vaccines. Brief discussion of Bt-cotton, ‘Flavr Savr’ tomato and golden rice.
Course GM 403: Microbial Genetics
Unit I: Fine structure of a gene in prokaryote: the rII locus, complementation test, recombination mapping, deletion mapping, cistron, recon, muton. Mutation; spontaneous mutation, Induced mutagenesis- mutagens (physical mutagens; non ionizing radiation; chemical mutagens; Base analogues, alkylating agents, deaminating agents, intercalating agents & others), molecular mechanism of mutagens.
Unit II: Suppressor mutation: intragenic mutation & intergenic mutation; Detection & isolation of mutants; DNA repair mechanism; repair by direct reversal, excision repair, mismatch repair systems, recombinational repair & SOS repair.
Unit III: Recombination: Reciprocal and non reciprocal, mechanism of recombination; Holiday model, Fox model, Enzymatic mechanism of recombination, Transposable element; Classes of transposable elements, nomenclature of transposable elements; insertion sequences (IS elements), Transposons(composite structure and complex transposons structure) mechanism of transposition.
Unit IV: Gene transfer mechanisms: Bacterial transformation (mechanism of transformation, transfection, competence), transduction; generalized transduction, specialized transduction, abortive transduction, conjugation; effective contact and pilli in conjugation, the ‘F’ factor, the conjugal transfer process, high frequency recombination (Hfr) Strains, the order of chromosome transfer, formation of F prime (F¢), Mapping by using transformation, transduction and conjugation.
Unit V: Plasmids: F plasmids, R plasmids, Col plasmids & Ti plasmid; control of copy no. and incompatibility; Bacteriophages, lytic phages-T7 and T4; lysogenic phages-l & P1; M13 & φX 174; Recombination & genome mapping in viruses.
Course GM 404: Food, Feed & Dairy Microbiology
Unit I: Important microbes involved in spoilage of food, meat, poultry, vegetables and dairy products; food preservation; Microbial deterioration of cereals, pulses, fish and sea-foods during storage.
Unit II: Toxins: Bacterial and mycotoxins, Important microbes secreting toxins, chemical nature of important toxins; their role in food poisoning; physiology and mechanism of action, modification and detoxification; prevention and control of toxin contamination.
Unit III: Microbial biomass and Single cell proteins: Uses of microbes in meats and poultry products, vegetables etc. Use of microbial enzymes in food; low calorie sweetners, Flavour modifiers; Food additives; Food quality monitoring, biosensors and immuno assays, Indian fermented foods.
Unit IV: Role of microbes in milk and dairy products: Microbiological examination of milk, standard plate count, direct microscopic count and reductase test, composition of milk, sources of contamination of milk, types of microbes in milk, pasteurization of milk, ability of milk to cause disease; Manufacture of cheeses, butter, yoghurt and fermented milk.
Unit V: Feed for cattles: use of microbes and microbial enzymes in the improvement of nutritive quality of feed; Rumen microbiology; leaf protein extract.